How rabies is transmitted to a person
The rabies virus is found in large quantities in the saliva of a sick animal, and the blood, feces and urine are non-infectious. Human infection most often comes from the following animals: dogs, cats, foxes, wolves, jackals, raccoons, arctic foxes, bats. Infection of a person with rabies is possible if the patient is bitten by an animal or if its saliva gets on damaged skin (wounds, scratches, abrasions).
In very rare cases, infection occurs by inhalation of air or dust containing the virus. There are cases of rabies among workers who work on the skin of sick foxes. Infection is excluded in case of contact of intact skin with urine, feces, blood of sick animals, as well as by eating their meat. A person who has rabies cannot be contagious to another person. A disease virus dies outside the body of a person or beast. It is detrimental effect of sunlight, disinfectants.
If you are bitten or come into contact with the saliva of a sick animal, you should consult a doctor for vaccination. Rabies develops only in 1 of 6 bitten even in the absence of any treatment. In case of infection, the incubation period lasts from 3 weeks to 3 months, sometimes it can last for several years. At the stage of the pronormal phase, vomiting, fever, headache, pain at the site of the bite are observed. With the defeat of the autonomic nervous system appears tearing and drooling.
At the second stage of development, there are spasms of the throat, difficulty in breathing, hyperactivity, increased anxiety, involuntary movements, confusion and delirium, and paralysis may occur. As a result of paralysis, breathing and heartbeat stop. The mortality rate for this disease is almost 100%. Most often, a person dies at 7-14 days after the first symptoms. There is no effective treatment for rabies. Only a few cases of recovery during the treatment with Ribavirin and Amantadine have been described.
Virus infection can be avoided if prophylactic treatment was started on time after the bite of a sick animal.To prevent rabies infection, people who come into contact with wild or homeless pets should be vaccinated against rabies. This vaccination is necessary for veterinarians, dog breeders, rangers. The vaccine is made several times according to the scheme: the first vaccination, then after 7 days. - the second and in 30 days - the third. A year later, revaccination is needed. After that, repeated vaccinations do 1 time in 3 years.
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